Articles | Volume 9, issue 1
© Author(s) 2023. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2023. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Modeling general circulation model bias via a combination of localized regression and quantile mapping methods
Benjamin James Washington
Department of Statistics, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA
Thomas L. Mote
Department of Geography, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA
No articles found.
Thomas J. Ballinger, Thomas L. Mote, Kyle Mattingly, Angela C. Bliss, Edward Hanna, Dirk van As, Melissa Prieto, Saeideh Gharehchahi, Xavier Fettweis, Brice Noël, Paul C. J. P. Smeets, Carleen H. Reijmer, Mads H. Ribergaard, and John Cappelen
The Cryosphere, 13, 2241–2257,Short summary
Arctic sea ice and the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) are melting later in the year due to a warming climate. Through analyses of weather station, climate model, and reanalysis data, physical links are evaluated between Baffin Bay open water duration and western GrIS melt conditions. We show that sub-Arctic air mass movement across this portion of the GrIS strongly influences late summer and autumn melt, while near-surface, off-ice winds inhibit westerly atmospheric heat transfer from Baffin Bay.
Diana Francis, Clare Eayrs, Jean-Pierre Chaboureau, Thomas Mote, and David M. Holland
Adv. Sci. Res., 16, 49–56,Short summary
Changes in Polar jet circulation bring more dust from Sahara to Greenland. The poleward transport of warm, moist, and dust-laden air masses from the Sahara results in ice melting in Greenland. A meandering polar jet was discovered as responsible for both the emission and the poleward transport of dust. The emission has been linked to an intense Saharan cyclone that formed in April 2011, as a result of the intrusion of an upper-level trough emanating from the polar jet and orographic blocking.
Paul W. Miller and Thomas L. Mote
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 1261–1277,Short summary
The likelihood of severe weather events in synoptically weakly forced thunderstorm (WFT) environments is best characterized by lapse-rate-based parameters. These measures, also among the most accurate model-derived variables, are posited to best capture the subtle convective environmental differences that favor WFT severity. Forecasters should consider weighting their WFT forecasts in favor of lapse-rate-based parameters over others that may be more sensitive to model biases.
S. Jeffrey Underwood, Michael D. Schultz, Metteo Berti, Carlo Gregoretti, Alessandro Simoni, Thomas L. Mote, and Anthony M. Saylor
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 16, 509–528,Short summary
This study examines 12 debris flow events occurring in northeast Italy. The study is one of the first to incorporate synoptic-scale atmospheric pattern analysis and meso-scale cloud-to-ground lighting flashes (CGFs) to analyze locally intense convective rainfall (LICR) that initiates debris flows in the Dolomite Alps. Three synoptic classifications were identified. CGFs are shown to be very good indicators of LICR and debris flows, confirmed via time-series analysis and correlation analysis.
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Joel Zeder and Erich M. Fischer
Adv. Stat. Clim. Meteorol. Oceanogr., 9, 83–102,Short summary
The intensities of recent heatwave events, such as the record-breaking heatwave in early June 2021 in the Pacific Northwest area, are substantially altered by climate change. We further quantify the contribution of the local weather situation and the land surface conditions with a statistical model suited for extreme data. Based on this method, we can answer
what ifquestions, such as estimating the change in the 2021 heatwave temperature if it happened in a world without climate change.
Said Obakrim, Pierre Ailliot, Valérie Monbet, and Nicolas Raillard
Adv. Stat. Clim. Meteorol. Oceanogr., 9, 67–81,Short summary
Ocean wave climate has a significant impact on human activities, and its understanding is of socioeconomic and environmental importance. In this study, we propose a statistical model that predicts wave heights in a location in the Bay of Biscay. The proposed method allows us to understand the spatiotemporal relationship between wind and waves and predicts well both wind seas and swells.
Katarina Lashgari, Gudrun Brattström, Anders Moberg, and Rolf Sundberg
Adv. Stat. Clim. Meteorol. Oceanogr., 8, 225–248,Short summary
This work theoretically motivates an extension of the statistical model used in so-called detection and attribution studies to structural equation modelling. The application of one of the models suggested is exemplified in a small numerical study, whose aim was to check the assumptions typically placed on ensembles of climate model simulations when constructing mean sequences. he result of this study indicated that some ensembles for some regions may not satisfy the assumptions in question.
Katarina Lashgari, Anders Moberg, and Gudrun Brattström
Adv. Stat. Clim. Meteorol. Oceanogr., 8, 249–271,Short summary
The performance of a new statistical framework containing various structural equation modelling (SEM) models is evaluated in a pseudo-proxy experiment in comparison with the performance of statistical models used in many detection and attribution studies. Each statistical model was fitted to seven continental-scale regional temperature data sets. The results indicated the SEM specification is the most appropriate for describing the underlying latent structure of the simulated data analysed.
Qiuyi Wu, Julie Bessac, Whitney Huang, Jiali Wang, and Rao Kotamarthi
Adv. Stat. Clim. Meteorol. Oceanogr., 8, 205–224,Short summary
We study wind conditions and their potential future changes across the U.S. via a statistical conditional framework. We conclude that changes between historical and future wind directions are small, but wind speeds are generally weakened in the projected period, with some locations being intensified. Moreover, winter wind speeds are projected to decrease in the northwest, Colorado, and the northern Great Plains (GP), while summer wind speeds over the southern GP slightly increase in the future.
Timothy DelSole and Michael K. Tippett
Adv. Stat. Clim. Meteorol. Oceanogr., 7, 73–85,Short summary
After a new climate model is constructed, a natural question is whether it generates realistic simulations. Here,
realisticdoes not mean that the detailed patterns on a particular day are correct, but rather that the statistics over many years are realistic. Past approaches to answering this question often neglect correlations in space and time. This paper proposes a method for answering this question that accounts for correlations in space and time.
Julie Bessac and Philippe Naveau
Adv. Stat. Clim. Meteorol. Oceanogr., 7, 53–71,Short summary
We propose a new forecast evaluation scheme in the context of models that incorporate errors of the verification data. We rely on existing scoring rules and incorporate uncertainty and error of the verification data through a hidden variable and the conditional expectation of scores. By considering scores to be random variables, one can access the entire range of their distribution and illustrate that the commonly used mean score can be a misleading representative of the distribution.
Adv. Stat. Clim. Meteorol. Oceanogr., 7, 13–34,Short summary
Verifying high-resolution weather forecasts has become increasingly complicated, and simple, easy-to-understand summary measures are a good alternative. Recent work has demonstrated some common pitfalls with many such summaries. Here, new summary measures are introduced that do not suffer from these drawbacks, while still providing meaningful information.
Thomas Patrick Leahy
Adv. Stat. Clim. Meteorol. Oceanogr., 7, 1–11,Short summary
This study looked at estimating damages caused by hurricanes in the United States. It assessed the relationship between the maximum wind speed at landfall and the resulting damage caused. The study found that the complex processes that determine the size of the damages inflicted could be estimated using this simple relationship. This work could be used to examine how often extreme damage events are likely to occur and the impact of stronger hurricane winds on the US Atlantic and Gulf coasts.
Yoann Robin and Aurélien Ribes
Adv. Stat. Clim. Meteorol. Oceanogr., 6, 205–221,Short summary
We have developed a new statistical method to describe how a severe weather event, such as a heat wave, may have been influenced by climate change. Our method incorporates both observations and data from various climate models to reflect climate model uncertainty. Our results show that both the probability and the intensity of the French July 2019 heatwave have increased significantly in response to human influence. We find that this heat wave might not have been possible without climate change.
Timothy DelSole and Michael K. Tippett
Adv. Stat. Clim. Meteorol. Oceanogr., 6, 159–175,Short summary
Scientists often are confronted with the question of whether two time series are statistically distinguishable. This paper proposes a test for answering this question. The basic idea is to fit each time series to a time series model and then test whether the parameters in that model are equal. If a difference is detected, then new ways of visualizing those differences are proposed, including a clustering technique and a method based on optimal initial conditions.
Joshua North, Zofia Stanley, William Kleiber, Wiebke Deierling, Eric Gilleland, and Matthias Steiner
Adv. Stat. Clim. Meteorol. Oceanogr., 6, 79–90,Short summary
Very short-term forecasting, called nowcasting, is used to monitor storms that pose a significant threat to people and infrastructure. These threats could include lightning strikes, hail, heavy precipitation, strong winds, and possible tornados. This paper proposes a fast approach to nowcasting lightning threats using simple statistical methods. The proposed model results in fast nowcasts that are more accurate than a competitive, computationally expensive, approach.
Ola Haug, Thordis L. Thorarinsdottir, Sigrunn H. Sørbye, and Christian L. E. Franzke
Adv. Stat. Clim. Meteorol. Oceanogr., 6, 1–12,Short summary
Trends in gridded temperature data are commonly assessed independently for each grid cell, ignoring spatial coherencies. This may severely affect the interpretation of the results. This article proposes a space–time model for temperatures that allows for joint assessments of the trend across locations. In a case study of summer season trends in Europe, it is found that the region with a significant trend under spatial coherency is vastly different from that under independent assessments.
Adv. Stat. Clim. Meteorol. Oceanogr., 5, 161–171,Short summary
In climate change attribution studies, one often seeks to maximize a signal-to-noise ratio, where the
signalis the anthropogenic response and the
noiseis climate variability. A solution commonly used in D&A studies thus far consists of projecting the signal on the subspace spanned by the leading eigenvectors of climate variability. Here I show that this approach is vastly suboptimal – in fact, it leads instead to maximizing the noise-to-signal ratio. I then describe an improved solution.
Moritz N. Lang, Georg J. Mayr, Reto Stauffer, and Achim Zeileis
Adv. Stat. Clim. Meteorol. Oceanogr., 5, 115–132,Short summary
Accurate wind forecasts are of great importance for decision-making processes in today's society. This work presents a novel probabilistic post-processing method for wind vector forecasts employing a bivariate Gaussian response distribution. To capture a possible mismatch between the predicted and observed wind direction caused by location-specific properties, the approach incorporates a smooth rotation of the wind direction conditional on the season and the forecasted ensemble wind direction.
X. Joey Wang, John R. J. Thompson, W. John Braun, and Douglas G. Woolford
Adv. Stat. Clim. Meteorol. Oceanogr., 5, 57–66,Short summary
This paper presents the analysis of data from small-scale laboratory experimental smouldering fires that were digitally video-recorded. The video images of these fires bear a resemblance to remotely sensed images of wildfires and provide an opportunity to fit and assess a spatial model for fire spread that attempts to account for uncertainty in fire growth. We found that the fitting method is feasible, and the spatial model provides a suitable mathematical for the fire spread process.
Robin Tokmakian and Peter Challenor
Adv. Stat. Clim. Meteorol. Oceanogr., 5, 17–35,Short summary
As an example of how to robustly determine climate model uncertainty, the paper describes an experiment that perturbs the initial conditions for the ocean's temperature of a climate model. A total of 30 perturbed simulations are used (via an emulator) to estimate spatial uncertainties for temperature and precipitation fields. We also examined (using maximum covariance analysis) how ocean temperatures affect air temperatures and precipitation over land and the importance of feedback processes.
Thorsten Simon, Georg J. Mayr, Nikolaus Umlauf, and Achim Zeileis
Adv. Stat. Clim. Meteorol. Oceanogr., 5, 1–16,Short summary
Lightning in Alpine regions is associated with events such as thunderstorms, extreme precipitation, high wind gusts, flash floods, and debris flows. We present a statistical approach to predict lightning counts based on numerical weather predictions. Lightning counts are considered on a grid with 18 km mesh size. Skilful prediction is obtained for a forecast horizon of 5 days over complex terrain.
Tony E. Wong
Adv. Stat. Clim. Meteorol. Oceanogr., 4, 53–63,Short summary
Millions of people worldwide are at a risk of coastal flooding, and this number will increase as the climate continues to change. This study analyzes how climate change affects future flood hazards. A new model that uses multiple climate variables for flood hazard is developed. For the case study of Norfolk, Virginia, the model predicts 23 cm higher flood levels relative to previous work. This work shows the importance of accounting for climate change in effectively managing coastal risks.
Amy Braverman, Snigdhansu Chatterjee, Megan Heyman, and Noel Cressie
Adv. Stat. Clim. Meteorol. Oceanogr., 3, 93–105,Short summary
In this paper, we introduce a method for expressing the agreement between climate model output time series and time series of observational data as a probability value. Our metric is an estimate of the probability that one would obtain two time series as similar as the ones under consideration, if the climate model and the observed series actually shared the same underlying climate signal.
Joshua P. French, Seth McGinnis, and Armin Schwartzman
Adv. Stat. Clim. Meteorol. Oceanogr., 3, 67–92,Short summary
We assess the mean temperature effect of global and regional climate model combinations for the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program using varying classes of linear regression models, including possible interaction effects. We use both pointwise and simultaneous inference procedures to identify regions where global and regional climate model effects differ. We conclusively show that accounting for multiple comparisons is important for making proper inference.
László Varga and András Zempléni
Adv. Stat. Clim. Meteorol. Oceanogr., 3, 55–66,Short summary
This paper proposes a new generalisation of the block bootstrap methodology, which allows for any positive real number as expected block size. We use this bootstrap for determining the p values of a homogeneity test for copulas. The methods are applied to a temperature data set - we have found some significant changes in the dependence structure between the standardised temperature values of pairs of observation points within the Carpathian Basin.
Andrew Poppick, Elisabeth J. Moyer, and Michael L. Stein
Adv. Stat. Clim. Meteorol. Oceanogr., 3, 33–53,Short summary
We show that ostensibly empirical methods of analyzing trends in the global mean temperature record, which appear to de-emphasize assumptions, can nevertheless produce misleading inferences about trends and associated uncertainty. We illustrate how a simple but physically motivated trend model can provide better-fitting and more broadly applicable results, and show the importance of adequately characterizing internal variability for estimating trend uncertainty.
John Tipton, Mevin Hooten, and Simon Goring
Adv. Stat. Clim. Meteorol. Oceanogr., 3, 1–16,Short summary
We present a statistical framework for the reconstruction of historic temperature patterns from sparse, irregular data collected from observer stations. A common statistical technique for climate reconstruction uses modern era data as a set of temperature patterns that can be used to estimate the spatial temperature patterns. We present a framework for exploration of different assumptions about the sets of patterns used in the reconstruction while providing statistically rigorous estimates.
Georgina Davies and Noel Cressie
Adv. Stat. Clim. Meteorol. Oceanogr., 2, 155–169,Short summary
Sea surface temperature (SST) is a key component of global climate models, particularly in the tropical Pacific Ocean where El Niño and La Nina events have worldwide implications. In our paper, we analyse monthly SSTs in the Niño 3.4 region and find a transformation that removes a spatial mean-variance dependence for each month. For 10 out of 12 months in the year, the transformed monthly time series gave more accurate or as accurate forecasts than those from the untransformed time series.
Eric Gilleland, Melissa Bukovsky, Christopher L. Williams, Seth McGinnis, Caspar M. Ammann, Barbara G. Brown, and Linda O. Mearns
Adv. Stat. Clim. Meteorol. Oceanogr., 2, 137–153,Short summary
Several climate models are evaluated under current climate conditions to determine how well they are able to capture frequencies of severe-storm environments (conditions conducive for the formation of hail storms, tornadoes, etc.). They are found to underpredict the spatial extent of high-frequency areas (such as tornado alley), as well as underpredict the frequencies in the areas.
Whitney K. Huang, Michael L. Stein, David J. McInerney, Shanshan Sun, and Elisabeth J. Moyer
Adv. Stat. Clim. Meteorol. Oceanogr., 2, 79–103,
Sergei N. Rodionov
Adv. Stat. Clim. Meteorol. Oceanogr., 2, 63–78,
David Bolin, Arnoldo Frigessi, Peter Guttorp, Ola Haug, Elisabeth Orskaug, Ida Scheel, and Jonas Wallin
Adv. Stat. Clim. Meteorol. Oceanogr., 2, 39–47,
Julie Bessac, Pierre Ailliot, Julien Cattiaux, and Valerie Monbet
Adv. Stat. Clim. Meteorol. Oceanogr., 2, 1–16,Short summary
Several multi-site stochastic generators of zonal and meridional components of wind are proposed in this paper. Various questions are explored, such as the modeling of the regime in a multi-site context, the extraction of relevant clusterings from extra variables or from the local wind data, and the link between weather types extracted from wind data and large-scale weather regimes. We also discuss the relative advantages of hidden and observed regime-switching models.
E. M. Schliep, A. E. Gelfand, and D. M. Holland
Adv. Stat. Clim. Meteorol. Oceanogr., 1, 59–74,Short summary
There is considerable demand for accurate air quality information in human health analyses. The sparsity of ground monitoring stations across the US motivates the need for advanced statistical models to predict air quality metrics. We propose a statistical model that jointly models ground-monitoring station data and satellite-obtained data allowing for temporal and spatial misalignment, missingness, and spatially and temporally varying correlation to enhance prediction of particulate matter.
R. Philbin and M. Jun
Adv. Stat. Clim. Meteorol. Oceanogr., 1, 29–44,
T. K. Doan, J. Haslett, and A. C. Parnell
Adv. Stat. Clim. Meteorol. Oceanogr., 1, 15–27,
W. B. Leeds, E. J. Moyer, and M. L. Stein
Adv. Stat. Clim. Meteorol. Oceanogr., 1, 1–14,
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We develop new methodology to statistically model known bias in general atmospheric circulation models. We focus on Puerto Rico specifically because of other important ongoing and long-term ecological and environmental research taking place there. Our methods work even in the presence of Puerto Rico's broken climate record. With our methods, we find that climate change will not only favor a warmer and wetter climate in Puerto Rico, but also increase the frequency of extreme rainfall events.
We develop new methodology to statistically model known bias in general atmospheric circulation...